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Automotive basic knowledge: The overall structure of vehicle

2018/07/16

There are tens of thousands of parts on the vehicle , but when people ask "what constitutes a vehicle", many people do not know where to start. Generally speaking, the car is mainly divided into four parts.


1) body

2) engine

3) chassis

4) electrical equipment


Body 

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First of all, the body. The body is part of a vehicle for carrying person or loading. It includes frame,  body appearance, interior trim and  electrical accessories. The body of passenger cars and buses is generally the whole structure. The truck trailer usually consists of two parts: a cab and semi trailer.


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The body is divided into "frameless body", "semi-integral body" and "body chassis frame construction (separate frame construction )" according to other bearing structure. For example, the car's engine, the gearbox, and other chassis parts are directly connected to the body , and the body needs to carry their weight, so it is the monocoque body.


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The truck chassis has a separate girder to carry the chassis assembly, the body is only responsible for the load of personnel and goods, so it is a body chassis frame construction.


It can be seen that the load bearing capacity of the frameless body vehicle is relatively inferior to that of the body chassis frame construction because it bears the load of the chassis. But because of its compact structure and more integrated vehicle, it has low noise and small weight, and is generally used in cars and other vehicles. In addition to trucks, there are many hard off-road vehicles that use a body chassis frame construction as a result of the more powerful bearing capacity of the body chassis frame construction .


Engine

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After we remove the body, we can find the heart of a car at once.


Although many people put the engine on the chassis part, because of the complex structure and principle of the engine, it is often listed as a separate part.


In addition, the engine here, in fact, includes all its accessories, such as oil tank, tail gas treatment system and so on, they can correspond to the engine "five major institutions", "two systems".


Chassis

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Besides the body and engine, the rest of the frame, gearbox, rear axle, wheel and so on belong to the chassis part.


According to different functions, chassis can be divided into four systems: driving system, steering system, transmission system and braking system.


Electrical equipment


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Electrical equipment is mainly composed of power supply system, electrical equipment and distribution devices. As you can see, the electrical equipment is embedded in the other three parts, but it is like a dense network, connecting the various agencies of the car together, and, like the commander, coordinating the work of all parts. Therefore, it is very important for the overall design of the vehicle to list this part separately.